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Solar power generation is attracting attention as a natural renewable energy source.

Recently, solar panels have been installed on the roofs of houses, and many large-scale Solar energy in Pakistan plants have been built. The sun emits an enormous amount of energy, so we would like to convert this energy into electricity and use it wisely in our lives.

On the other hand, many people may be wondering how this solar power is used to generate electricity. So this time, I will explain how this solar power system works.

Solar power generation is eco-friendly natural energy

Photovoltaic power generation uses sunlight, which is a renewable energy, to generate electricity, and it can be said that it is a natural and eco-friendly energy because it does not emit carbon dioxide in the process of power generation.

Solar power is the conversion of light energy emitted by the sun into electrical energy. This principle is based on a phenomenon called the “photovoltaic effect.”

The photovoltaic effect refers to the property that electricity is generated in a material when it is irradiated with light.

This photovoltaic effect has been confirmed in various materials, but the material with the highest photovoltaic effect is a semiconductor.

There are roughly two types of semiconductors, p-type and n-type, and by joining these different types, a large photovoltaic effect is produced.

This junction is called a “pn junction”, but by connecting semiconductors with pn junctions with copper wires, a circuit can be created and electricity can be extracted.

The solar panel is made up of 10 cm square cells arranged side by side. This cell becomes a “pn junction” semiconductor. However, since the electromotive force of this single cell is low, it is difficult to use it as it is, and this cell is connected in series to further increase the voltage.

Cells are arranged side by side and connected with copper wires, and the cells are protected with resin or glass to form a panel, which is called a “module.” This module is the smallest unit of a solar panel, and by arranging a number of these modules, a large-output solar power plant is created. A set of these modules is called an “array”.

solar panel conversion efficiency

Each of these cells and modules has a conversion efficiency. The conversion efficiency of a cell refers to how much solar energy can be converted into electrical energy. The higher the conversion efficiency of this cell, the more electricity can be generated in the same area.

Since the conversion efficiency of a cell is not constant and decreases with continued use, a good solar cell should have high conversion efficiency, be inexpensive, and have a long life.

However, to increase the conversion efficiency and life, the quality must be improved accordingly, so the selling price tends to be higher. Therefore, when choosing a solar panel, it is necessary to choose one that has a good balance of conversion efficiency, price, and life.

The conversion efficiency of the module indicates the conversion efficiency per 1m 2 of module area . Since the module is not completely covered with cells and there are margins, etc., the module conversion efficiency is lower than the conversion efficiency of a single cell.

The conversion efficiency listed as catalog specs refers to the conversion efficiency of this module, and if it exceeds 20%, it can be said to be excellent.

Therefore, when choosing a solar panel, it is good to see if the conversion efficiency is over 20%.

Solar cell type

There are many substances with a photovoltaic effect, but from a practical and commercial point of view, they can be divided into three classes:

The first is a silicon-based solar cell. It is the most widely used solar cell today. Silicon includes monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous solar cells.

Although there are advantages and disadvantages such as price and power generation efficiency, monocrystalline silicon generally has the highest power generation efficiency, and most solar cells used for small-scale power generation such as for home use are solar cells using monocrystalline silicon. .

The second is a solar cell using compound semiconductors. The solar cell with the highest conversion efficiency is this compound semiconductor, and the solar cell made of gallium and arsenic produces the highest efficiency among various solar cells.

Solar Panel Price in Pakistan However, although the performance is good, the price is very high, and it is only used in space development such as planetary probes. On the other hand, cadmium telluride solar cells using cadmium and tellurium have already been put to practical use, and can be made cheaper than silicon-based solar cells.

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